A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of Science Education Studies Regarding Pedagogical Content Knowledge
This meta-synthesis aims to address themes and codes of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) studies in science education. The PCK studies in science education were synthesized and systematically analyzed. A total of 12 studies were examined via the criteria. Three main themes were identified: the development and engagement of the PCK, the relationships between PCK components, and other relationships (belief, attitude, perception etc). The synthesis elicited two dimensions, namely the background and development of the PCK. Also, the results revealed that teachers demonstrated different developmental levels of the PCK and their PCK levels gradually progressed. In addition, it was found that each component of the PCK evolved in different forms. The meta-synthesis emerged two recommended categories of further research on the PCK and its relationships.