HOTs Multiple Choice and Essay Questions: A Validated Instrument to Measure Higher-order Thinking Skills of Prospective Teachers

Research Article

  • Ika Maryani Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Zuhdan Kun Prasetyo
  • Insih Wilujeng Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
  • Siwi Purwanti Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Meita Fitrianawati
Keywords: Higher-order thinking skill, multiple choice, essay questions, instrument


Higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) are very crucial thinking skills needed by teachers to train students to develop 21st-century learning. This study aimed to develop Multiple Choice and Essay Questions to measure the HOTs of the prospective teachers of the elementary school education department. This study used a 4-D model by Thiagarajan which involved experts at natural science, evaluation studies, and primary school pedagogy in the content validation. We also involved 156 prospective teachers as the test subjects. The assessment of instrument quality by experts showed that the question quality was very good. This research succeeded in developing 10 multiple choice questions and 5 essays. The validity test by Rasch Model showed that there were 7 multiple choice questions classified as fit, and 3 questions were classified as a misfit, while the 2 essay questions are invalid and the other (3 questions) as valid. The reliability test with KR-20 on multiple-choice questions and Cronbach's alpha for the essay questions resulted reliable questions. The discrimination index showed discarded, sufficient, good, and very good. The item difficulty index showed that 3 questions are
moderate (num 7, 1, 5) and 7 questions are difficult (num 4, 10, 6, 3, 2, 8, 9). The distractor efficiency showed that 59.2% of distractors worked, and 40.8% did not work. This instrument can be used to analyze prospective teachers’ HOTs. This data can be used as the reference for developing competency improvement programs for prospective teachers, for example through the HOTs-oriented learning models.